Average values of temperature and rain on the territory of Włoszczowa

Włoszczowa is in the zone of the humid climate. Below the diagrams of average temperature and rain during the year are presented.



Observation and measurement of weather elements

During the project all participants observed and studied elements of weather with the use of available devices. The research was conducted from 12th September, 2016 to 18th September, 2016. During that time Poland was under the influence of high pressure which brought heat and dry weather. The temperature was about 28°C. During the visit in Świętokrzyski National Park students could check weather conditions in specialist Geological Station on Święty Krzyż in Kielce together with research worker of this station. Research shows that average temperature of air was about 25°C, pressure 988 hPa and wind speed 12km/h. The sky was cloudless, there wasn't any rain and air humidity was about 25g/m3. Weather conditions which were explored during our project helped us carry out the planned experiments. 


Air pollution is called all substances (gases, liquids, solids), which are in air but which are not its natural ingredients.


The most important air pollution, such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, fluoride compounds or dust, impact on the plants directly from the air, and the first two can cause plant damage also indirectly-from the soil. 


Excessive levels of toxic chemicals may cause disturbances in the physiology of conifers. There can be numerous consequences such us: slow or stunted growth of the tree that appears most often in the form of strong reduction or lack of annual increments.


Effects of sulphur dioxide is revealed, in the form of needles and leaves damage and leaves in high concentration it can cause the inhibition of photosynthesis.

Over the last 5 years, in włoszczowski region there is no recording of destroyed trees influenced by air pollution. The leaves of plants which grow in the neighbourhood of factories have got much more dust than plants which grow in remote places.

Scale lichen

Scale lichen - it is a scale in which through observations of different lichens types, we can define the level of air pollution.


There are seven zones:

Zone I – Total lichens desert. There are no lichens in this zone, only unicellular algae which form green coating on barks.

Zone II – Relative lichens desert, strong pollution. There are crusty lichens.

Zone III – Strong air pollution. There are lichens cordata.

Zone IV – Zone of medium air pollution. Occurrence of lichens frondosa and lichens bushy.                

Zone V – Slightly polluted air. Lichens frondosa on large surfaces.                                                                        Zone VI – No significant air pollution. There are lichens bushy and filamentous lichens.                                   

Zone VII – Very clear air. Large variety of lichens bushy and sensitive species as well.

Concentration µɡ SO2/m3

Zone I 170
Zone II 170 - 100
Zone III 100 - 70
Zone IV 70 - 50
Zone V 50 - 40
Zone VI 40 - 30
 Zone VII  < 30

Results and conclusions

Based on experiments and research which we carried out there are following conclusions:

• The area of school (next to the street ) and the area of Św. Krzyż - II and III zone, what means that there is high air pollution. In case of Św. Krzyż (Saint Cross) the condition of air is detoriarated by acid rain

The area of Jaskinia Raj (Paradise Cave) and Wolica (a village near Chęciny) - IV zone, what means that there is average air pollution. 

• In Ciemiętniki - V zone, so there is slight air 

High contamination of the atmosphere is formed in cities with high traffic, where there is an excessive amount of exhaust fumes, dust in particular emitted from factories get into the air. Smaller contamination is in the cultivated fields, and at a very small level in National Parks.



Acid rain is responsible for atmosphere in the neighbourhood of St. Cross because there is high concentration of sulphur compounds. Water addification processes are effected by adsorption of atmosphere pollution.