soil test results

1. pH

The level of concentration of hydrogen ions decides of pH in soil. To sources of soil acidification we can include:

  • geological processes,
  • soil formation processes,
  • alkaline ions outwashing,
  • calcium uptake by plants,
  • acid rains,
  • inappropriate fertilizing methods.


Acid soil appears in area of Włoszczowski district. As a result of this, it is harder for plants to uptake nutrients. Above this it attains to activation of toxic chemicals, which leads to higher uptake of heavy metals by plants. These phenomenons leads to lower harvests and worse quality of them. A way to make these quality better is to lime these soils. This process will make soils more alkaline.

2. Deployment of particles size in soil


Deployment of particles size also called granulation determines the percentage of fractions of soil against the weight of entire specimen of tested soil.


One of the testing ways is sieve analysis. It depends on using some sieves ( ca. 0,05mm to 80mm). Vibrations are causing the smaller particles to move and the bigger ones are stopped.

In testing areas: Ciemiętniki, Czarnca and in our school environs the light and medium soils are dominating. The content of loam is less than 30%. They are mainly podzols and peat soils.


In the areas of Wolica, near Chęciny and near Raj Cave occur heavy soils. They are mainly rendzinas, which came into being from limestones. They are fertile but hard to use. 

3. Soil types


In Włosczowski district area we can distinguish three soil areas.

These are:

  • area which includes II, IIIa and IIIb soil classes. These are chernozem, brown and delavial types of soil,
  • area which includes IVa and IVb classes. These are shallow chernozem rendzina types of soil,
  • area which includes worst and almost not protected types of soil - V and VI classes. We can distinguish pseudo-podsols and brown earths there.

4.Chemical composition of soil is composed.

The basic components of soil are:

  • silica, silicates and salts(maily carbonates, sulphates, nitrates and phosphates)and also iron, calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium,


Almost every element occurs in vestigial amounts in soil.

5. Presence of nitrogen in soil


Nitrogen in soil environment appears in organic and mineral forms. To mineral forms of nitrogen we can include nitric form (NO3^-) and ammonium form (NH4^+), which makes only 1-2% of general nitrogen.


Agronomical category of soil

Content of N(min)    
very low low medium high very high
very light up to 40          41-65               66-85             86-120              above 120   
light up to 50 51-80  81-105  106-130  above 130
medium and heavy up to 60 61-90  91-115  116-140  above 140

6. Phosphorus is component of many compounds and it has influence on plants metabolism. 

This element very poorly moves in the soil.


Evaluation of phosphorus content in mineral soils (in mg/100g of soil)

Evaluation of content Converted into P₂O₅
very low below 5,0
low 5,1 - 10,0
medium 10,1 - 15,0
high 15,1 - 20,0
 very high  above 20,1 

Soils of świętokrzyskie voivodeship have very low and low level of nitrogen and phosphorus (ca. 45% of soils). Soils in włoszczowski district have low or very low content of phosphorus and nitrogen. They are ca. 57% of all soils.

7. Influence of salt


Soil salinity, after crossing certain set standard, can lead to stopping growth of vegetables and even damaging them.

8. Influence of liming on the soil reaction.


Liming is a very important process, which is adjusting soil reaction and prevents its acidification. It also causes enhancement of using mineral fertilizers. Calcium also reduces amount of harmful fungi.

9. Influence of acid soil


Soil acidification is at some point helpful for most part of trees. Mostly because of benefits for trees and mushrooms which lives in symbiosis.